Insulin resistance and depressive disorders?
Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Yet, there remain significant challenges in predicting new cases of major depression and devising strategies to prevent the disorder. An important first step in this process is identifying risk factors for the incidence of major depression. There is accumulating biological evidence linking insulin resistance, another highly prevalent condition, and depressive disorders.
Incident Major Depressive Disorder Predicted by Three Measures of Insulin Resistance: A Dutch Cohort Study
Ketones and ketosis is everywhere in the news. What are ketone bodies, why are they so good for us and how do we measure them?
Our guest today is Jim Howard who happens to be the CEO of biomarker-based startup Readout Health. They make Biosense, the first clinical-grade, handheld device that measures nutritional ketosis for chronic disease and longevity/wellness focused consumers. He is a 27-year digital health executive with an MBA from University of Missouri-Saint Louis.
Take away points:
What are the three ketone bodies and the three general ways to detect them?
Three Ketone bodies are produced as a by‐product of fat metabolism. When the liver metabolizes circulating free fatty acids, they are transformed into acetyl‐CoA, a molecule used in the production of energy. Depending on the glucose level, acetyl‐CoA can be diverted to produce acetoacetate, the first of three ketone bodies. From acetoacetate, two other ketone bodies, β‐hydroxybutyrate and acetone, are produced by enzymatic degradation or spontaneous decarboxylation, respectively.
All three ketone bodies circulate in the bloodstream. Acetone, because of its small size, diffuses into the lung and appears in the exhaled breath. The devices we will be discussing detect levels of acetone from this process.
Deep lung measurement.
Biosense Breath Ketone Monitor -Use the code Lufkin20 for a $20 discount at https://mybiosense.com/
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If we could get rid of subcutaneous fat will metabolic disease improve?
Surgical removal of subcutaneous fat alone does not affect insulin action, metabolic markers or risk factors for coronary heart disease. Visceral adipose tissue and liver fat undoubtedly play a key role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance.
Klein, Samuel, and Bruce W Patterson. “Absence of an Effect of Liposuction on Insulin Action and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease.” The New England Journal of Medicine, 2004, 9.